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Scientific analysis and technological development have gone hand-in-hand because the invention of the wheel. Without analysis, we lack the information base to advance the state of expertise and, with out technological development we lack the purposeful base for additional scientific exploration. In their new e book, The Genesis of Technoscientific Revolutions, Harvard University Professor of Technology and Public Policy, Venkatesh Narayanamurti, and Sandia National Laboratories Senior Scientist, Jeffrey Y. Tsao, discover the symbiotic relationship between these two ideas and the way their interplay is perhaps modulated to higher serve the quickly accelerating tempo of twenty first century technoscientific discovery.

Harvard University Press

Excerpted from THE GENESIS OF TECHNOSCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS: RETHINKING THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF RESEARCH by VENKATESH NARAYANAMURTI AND JEFFREY Y. TSAO, printed by Harvard University Press. Copyright © 2021 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Used by permission. All rights reserved.


The Network Is Hierarchical: The Nesting of Questions and Answers

The approach wherein scientific and technological information are hierarchical stems from the nesting mentioned within the final chapter, each of scientific information and explanations and of technological features and the types that fulfill them.

fig 2-1

Harvard University Press

In science, on the high of the hierarchy are information — uncooked patterns in noticed phenomena. These patterns may be considered questions: Why does a selected sample happen? Why when one releases a ball does the ball fall and fall sooner the farther it has fallen? Explanations of these uncooked patterns come a degree beneath within the hierarchy, and may be considered solutions to these questions: Galileo’s sixteenth-century clarification of the noticed distance-versus-time sample was that the velocities of falling balls improve linearly with time. But this reply, or clarification, turns into itself one other query: Why do the velocities of falling balls improve linearly with time? This query begs a deeper clarification, a deeper reply: Newton’s clarification was that gravity is a power, that uniform forces trigger uniform acceleration, and that uniform acceleration causes linear will increase in velocity. Scientific understanding is all the time incomplete, after all, so there may be all the time some extent at which we have now no deeper clarification. This by no means detracts from the ability of the reasons that do exist: science seeks proximate whys however doesn’t insist on final whys. The normal idea of relativity explains Newton’s legal guidelines of gravity, even when its personal origin is but to be defined.

In expertise, on the high of the hierarchy are human-desired features. These features current issues which might be solved by types beneath them within the hierarchy. Forms fulfill features, however these types current new issues that should be solved at successively deeper ranges. Shifting from the problem-solution nomenclature to the equal question-answer nomenclature, we will say that the iPhone represented a technological query: How can we create an Internet-capable cellular telephone with a software-programmable interactive show? A partial reply got here within the type of multi contact capacitive surfaces, opening up a big design house for person interplay when a number of fingers are used concurrently. But the opaqueness of current multitouch surfaces itself turned a query: How can we make multi contact surfaces clear in order that the show is seen? The multi contact clear floor show offered a solution.

In different phrases, science and expertise are each organized into hierarchies of question-and-answer pairs, with any query or reply having two “faces.” One face, pointing downward within the hierarchy, represents a query to a solution slightly below it within the hierarchy. The different face, pointing upward within the hierarchy, represents a solution to a query simply above it within the hierarchy. We emphasize that our depiction of questions as “above” solutions and solutions as “below” questions is unfair — it doesn’t signify relative significance or worth however is solely meant to be in keeping with widespread utilization. In science, an evidence is deeper and extra “foundational” than the very fact it explains, particularly if it generalizes to explanations of many different information. Special relativity is, in that sense, deeper than the fidelity of c as a result of it solutions the query of why c is fixed; it additionally solutions the query of how a lot vitality is launched throughout nuclear fission and fusion. In expertise, types are deeper and extra “foundational” than the features they fulfill, particularly if they’ve been tailored to meet many different features. The multi contact clear floor show is extra foundational than the iPhone as a result of it not solely helps reply the query of methods to create the iPhone, but in addition helps reply the query of methods to create human-interactive shows on the whole. Rubber is extra foundational than a bicycle tire as a result of it not solely helps reply the query of methods to create a bicycle tire, but in addition helps reply the query of methods to create a myriad of different kinds of tires.

The Network Is Modular: Facilitating Exploitation and Exploration

Closely associated scientific questions and solutions are organized into what we’d name scientific domains, which we’ll seek advice from as scientific information modules. Closely interacting technological issues and options are organized into engineered elements, which we’ll seek advice from as technological information modules.

fig 2-2

Harvard University Press

Closely associated scientific questions are sometimes answerable inside a scientific information area, or scientific information module, drawing on a number of subdomains nested throughout the bigger area. A query associated to some electron transport phenomenon in a selected semiconductor construction lies within the broad area of semiconductor science however the reply would possibly require an built-in understanding of each the subdomain of electron transport physics in addition to the subdomain of the supplies science of the synthesized construction. The subquestion related to electron transport physics would possibly require an built-in understanding of the subdomain of electrons in numerous sorts of constructions (bulk supplies, heterojunctions, nanostructures, coupled nanostructures) and of the sub-subdomains of interactions of electrons with phonons in these constructions. The subquestion related to the supplies science of the synthesized construction would possibly require an understanding of the sub-subdomains of substrates and epitaxy, skinny movies, or put up supplies synthesis fabrication. In different phrases, we will consider scientific information domains as a modular hierarchy, and consider its subdomains as submodules and sub-submodules.

Closely associated technological issues, likewise, are sometimes solved by key technological elements, or technological information modules, maybe integrating a number of subcomponents nested throughout the bigger elements. An iPhone is a part itself composed of many subcomponents, and every subcomponent is equally subdivided. We can consider the “problem” of the iPhone as a part that’s “solved” by its subcomponents — an enclosure, a show, a printed circuit board, a digicam, and enter / output ports. We can consider the “problem” of a printed circuit board as a subcomponent that’s “solved” by sub-components that embody low-power built-in circuit chips. Conversely, an iPhone can be a part that’s itself nested in a hierarchy of use features. An iPhone is perhaps used as an answer to the issue of “running” a text-messaging app; a text-messaging app is perhaps used as an answer to the issue of sending a mass textual content message to a good friend group; the mass textual content message is perhaps used as an answer to the issue of organizing the good friend group right into a protest in Times Square; and the protest in Times Square is perhaps a part of an answer to the issue of organizing a wider social motion for some human-desired social trigger.

One would possibly ask: Why is scientific and technological information modular? They are modular as a result of they’re complicated adaptive programs — programs sustained by and tailored to their atmosphere by complicated inner modifications — and just about all complicated adaptive programs are modular (Simon, 1962). Complex adaptive programs each exploit their environments and discover their environments to enhance that exploitation. Modularity allows effectivity, each within the exploitation of current information in regards to the atmosphere and exploration of that atmosphere to create new information.

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